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Conveyors are generally sorted by traction
Conveyors with traction members generally include traction members, load bearing members, drive devices, tensioners, redirectors, supports, and the like. The traction elements are used to transmit traction, which can be used as conveyor belts, traction chains or steel wire ropes; the load bearing members are used to hold materials, such as hoppers, brackets or spreaders, etc.; the driving devices are used to power the conveyors, generally by motors, speed reducers and Brakes (stoppers) and other components; tensioning devices are generally two types of screw and hammer, can maintain a certain tension and traction traction, to ensure the normal operation of the conveyor; support to support the traction or The load bearing member may be a roller, a roller, or the like.
The structural features of the conveyor with traction elements are: the transported material is loaded in the load-carrying component that is connected with the traction component, or is directly installed on a traction component (such as a conveyor belt), and the traction component bypasses the head and tail of each roller or sprocket. Connected to form a closed loop including the loaded branches of the conveyed material and the no-loaded branches of the non-transported material, the material is transported using the continuous motion of the traction elements.
There are many types of conveyors, including belt conveyors, plate conveyors, trolley conveyors, escalators, moving walkways, scraper conveyors, buried scraper conveyors, bucket conveyors, and bucket elevators. , hanging conveyors and aerial ropeways.
The structural composition of the conveyors without traction members varies, and the working members used to convey the material are also different. Their structural features are: the use of the rotating or reciprocating motion of the working member, or the use of media in the pipeline to make the material forward. For example, the working members of the roller conveyor are a series of rollers, which perform rotational motion to convey the material; the screw conveyor's working member is a screw, the screw rotates in the material trough to push material along the material trough; the work of the vibrating conveyor The component is a chute, and the chute reciprocates to convey the material placed therein.
In the future, the conveyor will develop towards large-scale development, expanding the scope of use, automatic sorting of materials, reducing energy consumption, and reducing pollution.
Large-scale includes several aspects such as large transport capacity, large stand-alone length, and large transport inclination. The length of the hydraulic conveying device has reached 440 kilometers and the length of the single-belt conveyor has been nearly 15 kilometers. There have been several "band conveyors" that make up the connection between A and B. Many countries are exploring more complete conveyor structures for long-distance, large-capacity continuous transport of materials. Extending the scope of use of conveyors refers to the development of conveyors that can operate in corrosive, radioactive, and flammable materials at high and low temperatures, as well as conveyors capable of transporting hot, explosive, brittle, and sticky materials.
Development Trends The development trend of conveyors is: 1 Continue to grow to large scale. Large-scale includes several aspects such as large transport capacity, large stand-alone length, and large transport inclination. The length of the hydraulic conveying device has reached more than 440 kilometers. The length of the single unit of the belt conveyor has been nearly 15 kilometers, and there have been several "belt conveyors" that make up the connection between A and B. Many countries are exploring more complete conveyor structures for long-distance, large-capacity continuous transport of materials. 2 Expand the use of conveyors. Develop conveyors that can operate in high temperature and low temperature environments, corrosive, radioactive, and flammable materials, and convey materials that are hot, explosive, easy to stick, and sticky. 3 to make the conveyor structure to meet the requirements of the single-machine automation control of the material handling system. For example, the trolley conveyor used for automatic sorting of parcels used by the post office should be able to meet the requirements of sorting operations. 4 Reducing energy consumption to save energy has become an important aspect of scientific research in transportation technology. The energy consumed for transporting one ton of material for one kilometer has been used as one of the important indicators of conveyor selection. 5 Reduce the dust, noise and emissions of various conveyors during operation. .
Transportation machinery can be divided into:
1, bulk material conveying machinery (such as: belt conveyor, screw conveyor, bucket elevator, large angle conveyor, etc.)
(1) Belt Conveyor consists of a driving device tensioning device. The central frame of the conveyor belt and the idler roller constitute a conveyor belt as a haulage and load-carrying member, so as to continuously transport the shredded material or the finished product.
Belt conveyors are friction-driven machines that transport materials in a continuous manner. It can be used to form a material conveying process on a certain conveying line from the initial feeding point to the final discharging point. It can not only transport the bulk materials, but also transport the articles. In addition to carrying out pure material transport, it can also cooperate with the requirements of the technological process in the production processes of various industrial enterprises to form a rhythmic flow production line. Therefore, belt conveyors are widely used in various modern industrial enterprises.
The belt conveyors are widely used in mine underground roadways, mine ground transportation systems, open pit mines and concentrators. It is used for horizontal transport or tilt transport.
The universal belt conveyor consists of conveyor belts, idlers, rollers, and drives, brakes, tensions, redirection, loading, unloading, cleaning, and other devices.
There are two kinds of rubber belts and plastic belts. Rubber band is suitable for working environment temperature -15 ~ 40 °C. Material temperature does not exceed 50 °C. The angle of inclination of the bulk material is upwards of 12° to 24°. Patterned rubber bands are available for large dip conveyors. Plastic tapes have the advantages of oil resistance, acid, and alkali resistance, but they have poor adaptability to the weather, and are prone to slipping and aging. Bandwidth is the main technical parameter of the belt conveyor.
Single roller (wrap angle of tape to roller is 210°~230°), double roller (wrap angle up to 350°) and multiple rollers (for high power). Grooved roller, flat roller, aligning roller, buffer roller. The grooved roller (composed of 2 to 5 rollers) supports the load-bearing branch to convey the bulk material; the aligning roller is used to adjust the lateral position of the belt to avoid running deviation; the buffer roller is installed at the receiving place to Reduce the impact of the material on the belt.
Sub-drive roller and redirection roller. The drive roller is the main component of power transmission. Single roller (wrap angle of tape to roller is 210°~230°), double roller (wrap angle up to 350°) and multiple rollers (for high power).
Its role is to make the conveyor belt reach the necessary tension, so as not to slip on the drive roller, and to ensure the deflection of the conveyor belt between the rollers within the specified range.
Technical advantages of belt conveyors
The first is that it operates reliably. In many important production units that need continuous operation, such as the transmission of coal from power plants, the transport of bulk materials from steel plants and cement plants, and the loading and unloading of ships in ports, belt conveyors are used. If the machine shuts down on these occasions, the loss is enormous. When necessary, belt conveyors can work continuously in one shift.
The belt conveyor has low power consumption. Because the material and the conveyor belt have almost no relative movement, not only the running resistance is small (about 1/3 - 1/5 of the scraper conveyor), but also the wear and breakage of the cargo carrier is small, and the productivity is high. These are all conducive to lower production costs.
The conveyor line of the conveyor belt is adaptable and flexible. The length of the line depends on the needs. A few meters short, up to 10km or more in length. It can be installed in a small tunnel or it can be set up over traffic-stricken and dangerous areas.
According to the requirements of the process flow, the belt conveyor can be flexibly fed from one or more points. It can also discharge to more points or sections. When feeding the conveyor belt at several points at the same time (such as a conveyor below a coal preparation plant) or at any point along the length of the belt conveyor, the belt conveyor conveys the material through a uniform feeding device to the conveyor belt. The machine becomes a main transport line.
The belt conveyor can take material from the roadway under the stockpile of the coal storage yard. When needed, it can also mix various materials in different piles. The material can be simply discharged from the conveyor head, or it can be unloaded at any point along the length of the conveyor by a plough-type unloader or a moving unloader.
(2) Screw conveyor, commonly known as auger, is suitable for horizontal conveying of granular or powdery material, inclined conveying, vertical conveying and other forms. The delivery distance varies according to the deformity, generally from 2 meters to 70 meters.
Transmission principle: The rotating spiral vane conveys the material and conveys it through the screw conveyor. The force that does not rotate the material with the screw conveyor blades is the material's own weight and the friction resistance of the screw conveyor housing to the material.
Structural features: Spiral blades are welded on the rotating shaft of the screw conveyor. The surface shape of the blade is based on different materials, such as solid surface type, belt type surface and blade surface type. Spiral conveyor screw axis in the direction of material movement in the end of the thrust bearing with the material to the spiral of the axial reaction force, in the captain is longer, should add the middle of the hanging bearing.
A double-screw conveyor is a screw conveyor with two rotating shafts that are respectively welded with rotating blades. To put it plainly, the two screw conveyors are organically combined to form a screw conveyor.
The rotation direction of the rotation axis of the screw conveyor determines the conveying direction of the material, but in general, the screw conveyor is designed to rotate the blades according to the single conveying. When transported in reverse, the service life of the conveyor is greatly reduced.
(3) Bucket Elevator A series of hoppers that are evenly attached to the endless traction members vertically lifts the material to a continuous conveyor.